Miami County, Ohio Genealogical Researchers -- Sponsored by the Computerized Heritage Association

Copied from Volume two of the book:
Published in 1920
Part 3

pages 524 - 543

- The War Of 1812 - Mexican War - Civil War - The Spanish-American War - The World War (#1) - Government War Loans - War Savings Stamps -
- The War Chest - Woman's National Defense Committee -
- The American Legion - The Red Cross -

The War of 1812

The participation of Miami county in the War of 1812, was largely confined to disrupting the influence of the British with the Indians. Tecumseh, the celebrated Indian leader, had welded many of the tribes together as a faithful unit serving the notorious English General Proctor. Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, had persuaded many of the tribes to ally themselves with the English in the War of 1812. That this alliance was largely selfish must be taken for granted. The conflict of 1812 afforded the Indians under their able leader, Tecumseh, a splendid opportunity to again assert their supremacy in this territory. That this promise was held out to them as an inducement, and decided their position in the conflict, is the natural conclusion.

At first, through the influence of Little Turtle, the Miamis and Shawanoes remained neutral, if not friendly to the Americans. On the death of Little Turtle, and yielding to the persuasive eloquence of Tecumseh, the Miamis joined in the Indian confederacy under him.

The alliance of the Indians with the English antedated the actual declaration of war by some months. The war itself was confidently expected by both sides. In anticipation of this exigency, strenuous efforts were made by the English to enlist the aid of all the Indians of this territory as a precautionary or preliminary feature of the impending conflict.

In October, 1811, General Harrison and Colonel Miller with the Fourth United States Infantry, and several companies of Kentucky volunteers reached Troy. The following November, they encountered the Indians under the Prophet at Tippecanoe. This decisive battle, so signally won by the Americans, settled the Indian question for a time.

On the 19th of June, 1812, war was formally declared, and 50,000 volunteers were asked for immediate service, and 100,000 for garrison duty. The expedition under General Hull, consisting of several regiments of Infantry, was organized at Dayton and proceeded north to Troy, later turning east to Urbana, and then proceeded to Detroit. After the surrender of this force to the English, northwestern Ohio was again exposed to Indian and English depredations.

There was, at this time, an organized regiment of Militia and two companies of riflemen in Miami county stationed at Greenville. Excitement ran high as reports reached the settlement, of the approach of the Indians and English up the Maumee. Several regiments were gathered from adjoining counties and assembled at Piqua, under General Meigs. An expedition of 700 or 800 men for the relief of Fort Wayne, was equipped and sent post-haste. Military stations were established at Loramie, old Fort St. Marys and other places. Blockhouses, outposts and stockades were established along the frontier, the principal ones being at Greenville, another at the mouth of Greenville Creek (now Covington), one at the mouth of Turtle Creek, and another on the Miami. The two companies of riflemen from Miami county were stationed at Greenville under Major Charles Wolverton.

In the spring of 1813, Colonel John Johnston, Indian agent, began to exert great pressure on the Indians to remain friendly to the American cause. Prior to this the Indian chiefs were frequently called in council in the village of Washington, when they were prevailed upon to at least remain neutral.

Colonel Johnston assembled some five or six thousand Indians, men, women and children in the agency at Upper Piqua, where they were clothed and fed at Government expense. Colonel Johnston, by personal influence, and kind treatment secured the friendship of the remaining Indians in the vicinity. The Government was prevailed upon and consented to the employment of Indian warriors. To this end several companies of riflemen were organized and gave creditable service during the remainder of the war. They were officered by whites, a restraining measure against any possible inhumanities of warfare.

In 1813, two companies of rangers were stationed four miles north of Piqua; the local "minute men" of the war ready to respond to a call from the frontier posts for help. The British and their ally Tecumseh, constantly endeavored to enlist the neutral Indians on their side, secret emissaries being sent to the Indians assembled in the vicinity of Piqua. Knowing the vast influence of Colonel Johnston with the Indians, the British set a price on his head, but owing largely to the fidelity of the Indians in this vicinity, all attempts at their defection failed.

About this time Chief Pashetowa with two or three followers, penetrated to the vicinity of Piqua. They were the remnant of a band which met defeat at the hands of Zachary Taylor. Pashetowa and his followers had massacred a number of isolated white settlers, and their expressed mission was to kill Colonel Johnston. Failing in this, they proceeded to the east bank of the Miami, where they killed two settlers named Dilbone and Gerard.

This incident aroused the suspicion against the friendly Indians, encamped around Piqua; excitement ran high, and a disposition of the friendly Indians was felt necessary. It was at this time that General Harrison, on behalf of the government, invited the braves to join the American forces.

>One other incident of importance occurred at this time, when the relief expedition for the relief of Fort Wayne, passed through Piqua. This consisted of a force of men under General Harrison. They were met at Piqua by the friendly Shawanoes, who had accompanied Oliver and Worthington on a previous expedition. The Shawanoes, who had reached Ft. Wayne with Oliver, were sent with a communication to Harrison. They succeeded in escaping from the besieged fort and delivered the communication to him at Piqua. He, urged on by the communication from Oliver, marched to the relief of Ft. Wayne, which was shortly accomplished.

As a resume of Miami county in this war, we find that on the 3rd of May, 1812, a company of fifty volunteers was organized. The election of officers was by ballot and George Buchanan was elected Captain, John Bobo, lst Lieutenant, and John McClay 2nd Lieutenant. They arrived at Camp Wayne, Greenville, Ohio, May 6th, where they corralled many Indian prisoners. Later, Captain Buchanan and his company were transferred to Fort Rowdy (Covington) at their own request. James Blue was appointed captain as was also Charles Wolverton, the former afterward becoming a judge.

On the rolls recorded and kept by Captain Reuben Westfall, for service in the war of 1812, appear the following: Captains--E. Kirtly, William Barbee, sr., Charles Wolverton, Jacob Mann, George Buchanan, William Luce, Charles Hillard. Lieutenants Gardner Bobo, J. Orr, John Williams, Conrad Flesher, Robert Reed, Moses Patterson, Jonas Patterson, John and Francis Patterson, Timothy Titus and John Johnson.

Among the privates were:, Joseph Marshall, Joseph Culbertson, William and James Shackelford, Andrew and John G. Telford, William Barbee, jr., McClung, James Howart, Aaron Tulliz, Andrew Thomson, James Brown, Samuel Mackey. The close of the War of 1812, gave great impetus to the settlement of the Miami valley. The Indian and British menace was definitely removed. The great immigration was soon at full tide. Throughout the valley clearings were made, cabins erected, and the great Miami valley was soon the scene of peaceful activities, as the hardy pioneers laid the foundations for today.

The Mexican War

The contribution of Miami county to the Mexican war was limited to a fragment of a company, which was later merged with a company organized at Dayton. The war itself had no appreciable effect on Miami county, other than the national interests involved. As the part played by this county in this war was nominal, there is nothing of significance that could be said in this instance.

Miami County in the Civil War

The call to arms responded throughout the nation in 1861, and Miami county responded almost instantly. The Covington Blues, a local military or anization, were equipped and ready for duty within a day or so after the call was sounded. They were on their way, post-haste, to Columbus, Ohio, and from there were quickly dispatched to Washington, D. C. Under the first call issued for 75,000 and 100,000 men; approximately 1,405 men were enrolled from Miami county.

A military aid society was formed for the purpose of assisting in the care of Miami county soldiers. This was the local "Red Cross" of that war. This committee gathered together at the beginning of hostilities and sent many comforts in the way of clothing, delicacies and food to the soldiers. Funds for the relief of the dependents , left at home, were gathered and generously distributed. This committee alleviated the suffering of these at home and did much to smooth the life of Miami's soldiers in the field. The personnel of this committee was as follows: Hon. M. G. Mitchell, Chairman; Dr. Harrison, Robert L. Douglas, James Rowe, Charles Morris, W. W. Crane and John Wiggans.

Miami's soldiers enlisted in various organizations; mainly in the 11th, 44th, 71st, 94th, 110th and 147th Ohio Volunteer Infantries. Other organizations that drew a part of their strength from Miami county were the lst Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 61st Ohio Infantry, 8th Ohio Battery, llth Ohio Cavalry and the lst Ohio Cavalry. The number of soldiers serving in the different contingents in the Union Army who were from Miami county has been variously estimated at from three to five thousand. One authority places the entire number at about thirty-two hundred.

The llth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dennison. Among those who shone brilliantly in the annals of this regiment was Augustus H. Coleman. He was born in Troy, Miami county, Ohio, October 29, 1829, son of Dr. Asa Coleman, one of the early pioneers and physicians of Troy.

Augustus Coleman attended West Point Military Academy, and at the call to arms, recruited Company D of the llth and was chosen Captain at Columbus. He was later commissioned Major and subsequently advanced to Lieutenant Colonel. On the day he fell, while leading his gallant charge, his commission as colonel was issued. September 17, 1862, ordered to move on the Confederate position across Antietam Creek, he fearlessly ordered a charge in the face of a galling fire and took his position in advance of his men. A bullet pierced his side and he fell mortally wounded. His men, with a heroic dash, crossed the bridge, gained a position and with a desperate assault swept the Confederates from their ramparts. The 11th was mustered in as a three-year regiment on June 20, 1861, and five full companies were represented from Miami county, B and F, from Piqua and D, H, and E from Troy. On August 27th they were ordered to Manassas junction. The rebels were driving the New Jersey troops back as the llth came up and crossed Bull Run, where they checked the enemy temporarily. At the Union retreat the llth formed the rear guard. They were in a number of other sanguinary engagements among which were Missionary Ridge Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Resaca, Georgi a, At the Battle of Missionary Ridge this regiment did splendid work. As the gallant llth charged the Rebel position, a shot struck Sergeant Wall down, and Lieutenant Peck seizing the colors from the fallen Sergeant, rushed forward and planted them on the Rebel works. As he did so, a Rebel bullet found its mark and Lieutenant Peck fell mortally wounded. A part of this regiment, consisting of two companies, accompanied Sheridan to the sea under command of Lieutenant Colonel D. C. Stubbs.

The 44th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Springfield, September 12 to October 14, 1861, for three years' service. At the Battle of Lewisbuig they made a gallant charge. In the retreat to Gauley, this regiment protected the rear of the Union Army from the advancing Rebels. As the 44th the military record of this contingent was brief, as they re-enlisted in the 8th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry subsequently, losing many of their number. As the 44th they participated in the battles of Lewisburg, W. Va., and Duttons Hill, Ky.

The 8th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, in which was merged the old 44th Ohio, reported for service at Camp Dennison, March 28, 1864. This contingent now proceeded toward Lynchburg but the enemy, heavily reinforced, forced the Union Army to retreat.

In the following August, the regiment having been divided, three companies of the 8th were surprised and captured at Huttonville. At Winchester they made a gallant charge and followed Early in his retreat up the valley, its entire work in the valley earning commendations of the highest command. At Phillippi part of the regiment was captured, later being exchanged and in August, 1865, was mustered out of the service. It participated at Covington, Virginia, Lynchburg, Liberty, Winchester, Cedar Creek and other engagements.

The 71st Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dave Todd, Troy, and was recruited in part from Miami county. Barton S. Kyle, of Troy, was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel and later was mortally wounded while leading a charge at Pittsburg Landing.

At Fort Donelson this regiment distinguished itself, losing 130 men. In the battle of Nashville one-third of their number was killed or wounded. This regiment participated in a number of battles among which were Shiloh; Fort Donelson; Cumberland; Jonesborough; Georgia; Columbia and Nashville, Tenn. The 94th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Piqua, Ohio, August 24, 1862, to serve three years. It was of raw material and without much training, but was ordered to service in Kentucky. At the battle of Perrysville they distinguished themselves and subsequently at Stone River, participating in every day of that sanguinary contest. At Tullahoma and Hoovers Gap, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain their work shone resplendent. With Sherman they were at Buzzards Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochie River and other engagements of that campaign. They were the first to enter Raleigh and took part in the grand review. When mustered out June 5, 1865, they had a total of 338 men of the original 1,100. Many authorities cite this regiment as one of the most brilliant of the Civil war. The 110th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Piqua, October 3, 1862, to serve three years. This regiment was assigned as part of the Second division, Eighth Army Corp. They were engaged by the superior forces of Lee near Kernstown and were forced to fight their way to Harper's Ferry. On May 4, 1864, they crossed the Rapidan and fiercely charged the Rebels. Their loss this day was 118 killed and wounded and taken prisoners. Altogether this regiment was in 21 actions and suffered a casualty list of 795 men. Among the engagements participated in were Union Mills, Winchester Heights, Mine Run, Spottsylvania Court House, Petersburg, Fishers Hill and Cedar Creek. The 147th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dennison, May 16, 1864, to serve 100 days. It started for Washington May 20th and was there ordered to Ft. Ethan Allen. It was later ordered to Fort Reno and then to Crystal Springs, where it supported the 1st Maine and 1st Ohio Batteries. On August 23, it was ordered to Camp Dennison and mustered out September 3, 1864.

Other contingents recruited in part and composed of a substantial number of Miami county men were the 8th Ohio Battery, the 42nd Ohio regiment, and these organizations participated in many sanguinary engagements. The contribution of Miami county to the Civil war was of the very highest order and does not suffer by comparison with any other military division in the Union army.

The 1st Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Dayton from August to October, 1861, to serve for three years. The original members (except veterans) were mustered out September 24th, 1864, by reason of expiration of term of service and the veterans and recruits were transferred to the 18th Veteran Regiment, Ohio Infantry. The regiment saw its initial battle at Pittsburg Landing, and closed its career in front of Atlanta. It participated in the meantime in many of the fiercest and bloodiest battles of the war. Miami county contributed an entire company (K) to this regiment, a number of whom gave their lives on the battle field or in the southern prisons. Bearing the initial number of infantry regiments, this organization stood in the first rank for gallantry and efficiency.

The 1st Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. As in the infantry, Miami county was represented in the first numbered regiments in this branch of the service, one company (I) being entirely composed of Miami county men. The regiment was organized in August, 1861, and served during the entire war, not being mtistered out until September, 1865, long after the close of actual hostilities. It had a long list of engagements, extending from May, 1862, to April, 1865, at the very close of the war, and occurring in seven or eight different states, and its career was as honorable as it was extended.

The Spanish-American War

There were two regularly organized companies within Miami county which were called for duty in this war, Company K of Piqua and Company A of Covington, both becoming units in the Third Ohio Infantry. The officers of Company K were: McPherson Brown, Captain; James F. Hubbard, First Lieutenant; Harry Mitchell, Second Lieutenant. Subsequently, Lieutenant Hubbard of Company K was promoted to Captain of Company A of Covington; Harry Mitchell was made First Lieutenant of Company K, and Harry Peterson was made second Lieutenant of the same company. Harry Mitchell later joined the regular army, eventually becoming Colonel in the U. S. A. and as such commanded the famous 165th United States Infantry in France during the World war. Company A was organized at Covington prior to the outbreak of the Spanish-American war. The officers were: Captain, Samuel Palmer; First Lieutenant, Henry Finfrock; Second Lieutenant, Harry Weaver. Weaver was later promoted to captain; Z. Ramsey was made Second Lieutenant to succeed Weaver; Finfrock continuing as First Lieutenant. Subsequently Weaver contracted an illness and died, Lieutenant Hubbard, of Company K, succeeding him as captain.

Both companies were sent to Columbus, Ohio, for mobilization; were sent to Fernandina, Fla., later being encamped at Huntsville, Ala., and both were mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, October 26, 1898.

The World War (this was World War #1)

Unlike other wars in which we have participated, the individual identity of the separate states was merged with the National Army. Thus we cannot treat each state or county as a unit in this great conflict. We can only follow the movements of those companies or regiments that were made up as a whole, or in greater part, of the boys from home.

While the greater part of Miami's contribution to the great war was widely distributed among different regiments and divisions, the local identity was preserved in the two regularly organized companies which were distinct Miami county companies. We will confine ourselves largely in this instance to the exploits of these contingents as being distinctly representative of the county. The number of men who claimed Miami county as their home and who served in the World war cannot be definitely ascertained, of course. However, the number of those who joined the colors in the army and navy, by draft and enlistment, was approximately 1,100 men. Many of these served in the 83rd and 37th divisions, the latter division embracing the two units regularly organized within the county.

Company C, of Piqua, and Company A, of Covington, were part of the old Third Infantry of the Ohio National Guard, and as such, they were called for service during the Mexican outbreak on the border. At this time the officers of both companies were as follows: Company A, Covington, Ohio. Captain, W. L. Marlin; first lieutenant, W. O. Boggs; second lieutenant, Kenneth Little. Company C, Piqua, Ohio, Captain, James Freshour; first lieutenant, Frank McCullough; second lieutenant, Ray Wolf.

Called for service on the Mexican border, both companies were sent to Camp Willis, Ohio, July 3, 1916. They were assigned to the llth Provisional Division of the United States Army and were stationed at El Paso, Texas, from September, 1916, to March, 1917. They entrained for Fort Benjamin Harrison to be mustered out but as the world war was imminent, the order was recalled. After a short stay at Fort Benjamin Harrison, both companies were sent to Ohio on guard duty. They were then ordered to Camp Sherman, August 14, 1917, which was in process of construction, and they later became a part of the 148th Infantry, Thirty-seventh Division, U. S. A. At Camp Sherman they entrained for Camp Sheridan, Montgomery, Ala., where they received intensive training and were sent to Camp Lee at Petersburg, Va. Here they were further trained and equipped for overseas duty and the following June, 1918, embarked for overseas service on the U. S. S. Susquehanna. On July 5, 1918, they disembarked at Brest, France, and were removed to the Napoleon barracks, where they remained for a short time and were then detailed for service on the Alsace-Lorraine front.

As the activities of these two companies were largely merged with the general movements of the Thirty-seventb Division, we will divert to a short history of this division before following it into battle. The Thirty-seventh was a National Guard Division, made up of Ohio National Guard units. This division was formed at Camp Sheridan, Alabama, and was completely organized in October, 1917. New numbers were given the various units and the identity of the old National Guard regiments was lost. On August 4, 1918, the infantry of the division took over the Baccarat sector, on the Alsace-Lorraine front, in the Vosges mountains, which had been comparatively quiet. It extended for a distance of fifteen kilometers from the Bois des Elieux, north of the village of Badonvillier, through the Bois Communal de la Woevre, Bois des Haies, the villages of Merviller and Ancerviller, along the edge of Bois Banal to the southern edge of the Bois des Pretres.

Here the men had their initial training and received their baptism of fire. They were made the special target each night, weather permitting, for enemy airplanes, which constantly raided and harassed them. The division responded by carrying out successfully a gas attack and also destroyed the enemy's ammunition dumps at Cirey and Blamont.

The division soon asserted itself and the night patrols made the enemy contest every foot of front they held. The control of No Man's Land became the sole prerogative of the Thirty-seventh after it was there a short time. This sector passed from a quiet zone into one of decided activity on the arrival of the Americans and in every encounter they maintained their traditional bravery. On being relieved, September, 1918, the French general, Duport, who was in command of the troops in this sector, commended the Thirty-seventh Division. In a special order he paid a tribute to their spirit, discipline and valor. The total casualties while on this sector were 102.

When relieved, the division was sent to the vicinity of Robert- Espagne, a village, for a short rest, after which it was sent to Recicourt, France. Two days later they were transferred to the vicinity of the ruined Avocourt, within sight of historic Verdun.

On the night of September 25th the artillery preparation began for the great Meuse-Argonne campaign. The artillery barrage reached its height at five o'clock the following morning, and the infantry started on their great drive. The Thirty-seventh Division was in the vanguard and was one of the divisions which initiated this great drive. Over a shell-torn area, knee deep in mud, soaked in constant downpour of rain, the infantry plodded on, fighting every foot of the way, until they captured the little town of Ivoiry. A short time later the village of Montfaucon was captured. This objective was considered impregnable and had withstood assaults time and again.

To the men of the Thirty-seventh Division belongs the honor of first entering Montfaucon and breaking the great Hindenburg line for the second time. The division pushed on, without artillery support, fighting every foot of the way until it reached a position north of Cierges, was relieved October 1st, and was sent to the rear after four days' continuous fighting. The total casualties of the division in this movement were 3,136. When the relief of the Avocourt sector was completed, the division was sent to Pagny-sur- Meuse and later to the St. Mihiel sector. Here there was intermittent activity, although at the time no organized offensive was undertaken. At times they were heavily shelled and constantly harassed by airplane raids. Here, also, they were subjected to a most vicious series of gas attacks which were largely facilitated by the thick woods and deep ravines. After nine days of desultory fighting on this sector, this division was withdrawn with a total casualty list of 197.

October 18, 1918, the troops were entrained in box cars, and, unaware of their destination, were whisked away to St. Jean and Weltje, Belgium, within sight of the ruined city of Ypres.

On October 22, 1918, the division was attached to the French army in Belgium and placed at the disposition of King Albert of Belgium. On October 29th and 30th it took over three kilometers of front trenches near the Lys river, the town of Olsene being approximately in front of the center.

On the morning of October 31st at 5:30 a. m. the artillery began to pave the way for an infantry advance. In spite of a fierce reply of machine gun fire and gas attack, the Americans quickly overcame the enemy resistance and drove him between the Lys and Escaut rivers. The French artillery played havoc with the enemy and the Americans pushed on to the Escaut, forcing the enemy to give way all along this sector. The town of Olsene was completely destroyed in this engagement. Preparations were now made to cross the river. Early in the morning of November 2nd men of the 3rd battalion, 148th infantry, under command of Lieut.-Col. William L. Marlin, swam the Escaut river and under a perfect hail of shrapnel and bullets and secured a foot bridge by felling trees and anchoring them on the other side. Over this structure the soldiers began to cross, some falling off into the icy waters, drowned, and others fell victims to the enemy fire. At two other points attempts were made to construct a bridge, one of which succeeded. Enemy planes swooped low over this action, pouring their deadly fire into the ranks of the brave allies. The intensity of the fight continued November 3rd and by this time nine or ten companies of infantry had crossed the river. November 4th and 5th the division was relieved by French units and returned to Thielt for recuperation. This achievement of the Thirty-seventh was indeed a splendid one. It was the first allied division which had succeeded in crossing the Escaut (Scheldt) river and established a bridgehead. They were opposed by the flower of the Germany army, who in their desperation gave the gallant Thirty-seventh all they had in human and inhuman warfare.

The conduct of this division was highly commended in an order issued by General H. Penet, in command of 30th army corps. The casualties suffered by the division in this memorable engagement, were 1,612. The division was later transferred to the 34th French Army Corps. It was planned to force another crossing of the river, the initiative, this time, to be taken by the French troops. All speed was urged, in view of the rumors of enemy capitulation as a whole, At 8 a.m., November 10th, the advance troops were on their way, and at the village of Syngem were met by merciless fire from the enemy. The action began and the Thirty-seventh was again in the center of the fray. The division sector was at a U-shaped bend in the river, with all the vantage points held by the enemy. Slipping in mud and crawling on all fours, the men worked their way up the river bank and dug in. November llth, the day on which the armistice was signed, found the Thirty-seventh secure in its positions. They fought to the last minute, and were holding the line as far east as the villages of Dickele, Zwartenbroeck, Keerkem and Hundlegem, when the armistice took effect. The division casualties in this action were 66.

It will be seen that the Thirty-seventh Division was one of the very best divisions in action, measured by accomplishments. Time and again it evoked the praise of the Allied commanders, and covered itself with glory on the battlefields of France and Belgium.

Company A and Company C of Covington and Piqua, respectively, were at all times part of this division. As units in the 148th Infantry, they were in the thick of action and took a prominent part in all the regimental and divisional movements.

At El Paso, Texas, Captain Marlin of Company A, was promoted to Major and W. O. Boggs succeeded him as captain. He in turn was succeeded by Robert C. Bunge who became captain of this company at Camp Sheridan. Captain Bunge was wounded at the Argonne, the command of the company subsequently passed to Lieutenant McCullough, and in turn to Captain C. W. Batchelor and Lieutenant George Kingery. On September 27th, at the Argonne, Company A was in the thickest of the fighting. They were continuously engaged from September 27th to October lst, and during this engagement they suffered 52 casualties.

During one of the engagements of Company A, First Sergeant Luther Langston, of Covington, was cited for unusual bravery. He was far in advance of the firing line, when he perceived a machine gun nest on his right. Midst a hail of machine gun bullets he advanced, flanked the machine gun, and captured it and its crew, single handed. Lieutenant Kingery was wounded at Olsene, Belgium, but remained with his troops and helped to carry wounded comrades to the rear.

Major W. L. Marlin, who had been promoted from Captain of Company A, was in charge of two battalions at the crossing of the Escaut. During this terrific engagement, he rendered unusually distinguished services. For two days and two nights he worked with his men, urging them on and setting a splendid example himself. He was practically in charge of the 148th Infantry regiment, being the highest commanding officer of that regiment present. At the Battle of the Lys and Escaut rivers and at the assault on Olsene, he performed wonderful service, not only personal service of the very highest order, but in the strategic handling of his men. It can be safely said that Major Marlin was one of the prime factors in the attainment of the objectives in this great battle.

The unusual service rendered by Major Marlin, who was then at the Escaut, won several recommendations for citations and decorations by American, French and Belgian orders. His promotion to Lieutenant Colonel was awarded for services of unusual distinction in the Argonne region.

Later, at the home coming of King Albert of Belgium, after his country had been freed of the Germans, Colonel Marlin was selected to command the guard of honor of American troops, an unusual distinction, conferred in recognition of his services in restoring Belgium to its former rulers.

The movements of Company C of Piqua and Company A of Covington throughout their active service were almost parallel. Company C took part in all the general movements of the division, as a unit in the 148th Infantry. On the Baccarat Sector, at the Argonne and later in Belgium, Company C gained many laurels and contributed its share to the general victories. At St. Mihiel this company was gassed time and again and suffered many casualties. At the Scheldt and Olsene, the boys were in the thickest of the fray and sustained heavy losses.

One of the outstanding feats of heroism of the Piqua contingent was that of Clifford Thompson of Troy. At Baccarat, while Thompson and a number of his comrades were in an outpost, an enemy hand grenade was thrown into their midst, timed to explode. Thompson sprang forward and seized the grenade, with the intention of hurling it outside, fully realizing the imminent danger to himself and comrades. As he seized the grenade, it exploded blowing his hand and part of his arm off. In making this heroic sacrifice, he saved the rest of his comrades from severe injury, if not death. For this feat of heroism, Thompson was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and Decorations from the French. He also was severely gassed. subsequently dying, from the effects. In his honor, his comrades from Troy named the Troy Post of The American Legion-Clifford Thompson Post. Sergeant Paul Schnell, Piqua boy, fell in battle at Olsene, wounded while advancing on an enemy position, dying on the field of battle. In his honor the Post at Piqua has been named the Paul Schnell Post. The A. B. Cole Post of Covington, was named in honor of one of their cornpany heroes, who fell in battle also. A number of citations for bravery or service were earned by boys in both companies; indeed, these two companies time and again elicited praise and citations from the highest commands, both from American and foreign commanders. Captain Freshour and Lieutenant Wolf, of Company C, were both wounded in action, while leading their men.

In citing these few instances of bravery, it is not the intention to minimize the many outstanding deeds of heroism of the boys who served over there. It is rather the intention to show in these few examples, the general conduct of our boys, and especially those of Company A and Company C. Miami county was well represented, on land and sea, and in the sketch of the two regularly organized companies of this county, is the epitome of all of the brave boys of Miami county, wherever thev were called to duty.

Government War Loans

To tell the full story of the wonderful achievements of Miami county in this important phase of the war movements. would be to enter a field of inexhaustible possibilities. From the inception of the First Loan to the final Victory loan, Miami county rose splendidly to its full duty. When the call came for the first loan a compact organization was formed including most of the leaders of the community in every avenue of life. The experience gained during the first two loans, defined the needs for the subsequent campaigns, and the very efficient organization perfected during the following campaigns was largely the result of many tireless and painstaking efforts on the part of the executive force of the first two campaigns.

The personnel of the executive force selected to push the First and Second loans were Chairman, H. E. Scott; vice-chairman, R. C. Conner; Secretary, T. J. Appleyard; Publicity, A. R. Garver, C. A. Campbell, F. C. Roberts, George O'Donnell, B. J. Ford, A. A. Hall, C. C. Waltermire, Merrit C. Speidel, Henry Kampf and H. A. Pauley. Rural Sales, Wirt Kessler, Chairman; George M., Brecount, Harry Ammon, Sumner Senseman, D. G. Wenrick, C. M. Patty, Geo. M. Boak, A. B. Jones, J. F. Caven, John K. Knoop. Speakers, J. T. Nielson, Chairman; H. E. Scott, T. J. Appleyard, jr., and L. E. Coppock. Factory, L. M. Flesh, Chairman; A. G. Timberlake, Henry Besancenei, H. H. Ritter, and H. L. Johnson. Finance, H. E. Scott, Chairman; J. L. Black, L. M. Flesh, A. R. Garver, and Geo. M. Boak. City Sales, T. L Black, Chairman; J. K. DeFrees, F. O. Flowers, F. P. Irvin, Geo. M. Peffer, A. W. Miles, E. L. Crane, A. W. Landis, Dr. J. Kendall, C. F. Perkins, D. F. Douglass, L. E. Ellerman, L. G. Peffer, Seth McCulloch, W. B. Bu Bois, L. O. Shilling, J. L. Reck, and Roy Pohlman. The new members added for the Second Loan were: Louis G. Peffer, Seth McCulloch, I,. O. Shilling, J. L. Reck, Roy Pohlman, A. W. Miles.

The results attained in these two loans are a testament to the very fine organization perfected by these men. A total sale of $577,550 was recorded in the First loan. The Second loan was greatly oversubscribed, the quota asked for this having been $781 ,400, and the amount subscribed $1,549,000, the number of subscribers being 3,011.

The campaign for the Third Liberty loan was also pushed with great vigor. Mr. R. B. Sullivan, of Piqua, relieving T. J. Appleyard, jr., as Secretary. The quota asked for this loan was $888,350, the amount subscribed being $1,698,900, and the number of subscribers, 4,822.

The executive force selected for the Fourth and Fifth loans was as follows: J. L. Black, Chairman; Bond Houser, Vice-Chairman, and R. B. Sullivan, Secretary-Treasurer. Executive committee: J. L. Black, Piqua; H. D. Hartley, Piqua; J. M. Spencer, Troy; Bond Houser, Troy; Publicity Director, Ralph C. Sykes, Troy; Assistant Publicity Director, J. E. Bryan. Township chairmen under H. D. Hartley, Harry Conley, Newberry township; L. A. Frazier. Brown township; A. A. Hall, Washington township; J. B. Wilkinson, Spring Creek township. Township Chairmen under J. M. Spencer, A. B Fessler, Concord township; Geo. Rehmert, Staunton township; Geo. Boal, Lost Creek township; Isaac Sheets, Elizabeth township: Wirt Kessler, Union township- C. F. Perkins, Newton township. Township Chairmen under L. E. Coppock, Sumner Senseman, Bethel township; J. W. Scheip, Monroe township.

Piqua City Organization: A. G. Rundle, corporation and business houses; F. M. Shipley, factory employees; J. P. Spiker, individuals and homes; R. B. Sullivan, local office; J. E. Bryan, publicity; and Miss Stella Boal, women's committee.

Troy City Organization: Raymond Harris, corporation and business houses; F. M. Roberts, individuals and homes; R. C. Sykes, publicity; L. A. Wheeler, townships; Mrs. Edwin Scott, women's committee.

County Quota Committee: John Arnold, L. E. Elleman, A. W. Landis, G. M. Peffer, L. M. Flesh, W. E. Bowyer, C. F. Perkins and E. L. Crane.

The result of this loan was very gratifying indeed. The county being thoroughly canvassed, many delinquents were aroused to their full duty. The quota asked for this loan was $1,742,150, and the amount subscribed was $2,235,100, the number of subscriber s being 8,513.

The Fifth loan, the "Victory" loan, was accomplished in record breaking time. All the forces of the county were merged into one compact organization under direction of J. L. Black. Each township was divided into districts with one or more chairmen for each township, who were assisted by a corps of well chosen lieutenants. Piqua and Troy were divided into their respective political wards and a committee was assigned to each ward. All factories and other places of employment had their own special committees, and thus every nook and corner of the county was covered. The quota asked for this loan was $1,286,350 and the amount subscribed was $1,900,000, the number of subscribers, 7,412.

Miami county was among the counties throughout the country which subscribed the Loans in "record breaking time," especially the "Victory Loan," which went over the top among the first, if not the very first in the country.

War Savings Stamps

When the Government inaugurated its campaign for the sale of War Savings Stamps throughout the country, an organization for the sale of stamps in Miami county was perfected. It was decided to push the sale of these stamps with the utmost vigor. Many unique features were introduced and a county wide campaign was pushed.

The chairman selected to initiate this great campaign and to carry it through the year 1918 was W. K. Leonard, of Piqua. J. L. Black was selected to direct the campaign in the northern section of the county and Chas. H. Dale in the southern. Every known agency was selected for the distribution of these stamps; everyone who could possibly sell any amount of them was recruited for duty, the school children selling many thousands of dollars' worth. A county organization was perfected, including an active working organization in each township. The result of this campaign resulted in the sale of $1,200,000 worth of stamps. F. O. Flowers was selected as chairman for 1919, serving until August of the same year; many thousands of dollars worth of stamps being sold under his direction. He was succeeded by Ralph B. Sullivan, of Piqua, and the drive conducted under his direction in September, 1919, resulted in a sale of $70,000 worth of stamps.

A consistent sale is steadily maintained through various agencies, mainly school children, amounting to more than $2,000 worth each week.

The War Chest

The war chest idea having been adopted and worked successfully at other places, a movement was started to establish a Miami County War Chest. At the urgent request of the Red Cross, Y.M.C.A., Knights of Columbus, and other organizations engaged in war-relief work, Judge Walter D. Jones of the Common Pleas Court of this county, announced the formation of the Miami County War Chest Association. A citizens' committee of twenty-three members was appointed for the purpose of perfecting a war chest organization. This committee became very enthusiastic over the project and rapidly completed the organization, adopting by-laws for its government which provided in substance, that: An executive board of twenty-three members, representative of all elements of the community should be appointed, that the functions of this board would be to direct the affairs of the organization; that a board of trustees be appointed, consisting of seven members, the duty of this board being to appropriate such part of the fund and devote the same to any war need they might deem necessary, and to authorize all disbursements; that a treasurer be appointed, and that all funds be deposited prorata among the banks, all funds to be drawn on by order of the treasurer and warrant of the Board of Trustees. It was further provided that a president, vice- president and secretary-treasurer be elected by the executive board.

After due consideration and consultation, an organization was perfected for the active solicitation of funds and the county was divided into districts as follows:

The Piqua district: Allen G. Rundle, manager; corporations and business houses, L. M. Flesh; factory employees, H. D. Hartley, Frank M. Shipley; individuals and homes, John P. Spiker, townships, James L. Black; local office organizations, Ralph Sullivan; publicity and education, George A. Flesh.

The townships in the Piqua District were as follows:

Newberry township, Harry N. Conley; Washington township, A. A. Hall; Spring Creek township, J. B. Wilkinson; Brown township, Logan Frazier. The townships in turn were subdivided, J. W. Routson handling the campaign in Bradford, C. B. Maier in Covington , and J. E. Deetzer and H. C. McCrossing were appointed, to handle the rural end of Newberry township.

The Troy district was organized as follows: Bond Houser, manager; corporations and larger prospects, Jno. M. Spencer; townships, J. L. Bennett, Chas. Dale; homes and individuals, Harry L. Landis, Perce H. Bridge; local office organizations, C. E. Bottle; publicity and education, Ralph C. Sykes, J. C. Fullerton, Jr.

Townships-Troy District: Newton township, Frank Longnacker; Concord township, Harry Schaefer; Staunton township, north, Charles Cline; Staunton township, south, George Rehmert; Lost Creek township north, Frank Wilson; Lost Creek township, south, Ross Knoop; Union township, A. G. Eidemiller; Elizabeth township, Frank E. Thompson; Bethel township, Charles Karns.

Tippecanoe district: Tippecanoe city, Edward L. Cooper; rural Monroe township, H. W. Wilson. Edward L. Cooper was the manager of the Tippecanoe district.

All of the work connected with the fund-raising was in the hands of the campaign committee. This committee in turn appointed a budget committee; the latter committee to investigate and determine the amount of funds needed from the county for the year beginning May 1, 1918. This investigation disclosed that Miami county had contributed approximately $175,000 to various relief work during the previous year. On this basis, it was determined that $300,000 was needed for the ensuing year. A big drive was instituted throughout the county; the organizations as above detailed, handling the campaign in their respective spheres. This drive covered every nook and corner of Miami county and the thoroughness of the work is best attested by the results.

The drive ended June 2, 1918, and by that time approximately 17,000 subscriptions were taken, which totaled $510.000. The last quarterly payment being suspended: all subscribers who paid more than three-fourths of their subscriptions were refunded all in excess of three-fourths. The War Chest appropriated money to the following organizations: Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., Salvation Army, American Jewish Relief, The Knights of Columbus, The American Library Association, American Friends Service Committee, American Committee for training maimed soldiers (French) in suitable trades, American Women's Hospitals. Armenian and Syrian Relief, American Cornmittee for Relief in Near East, American Fund for French Wounded, American Committee for Devastated France, American Jugo- Slav Relief, American Jewish Relief Committee, Belgian Soldiers' Tobacco Fund, Camp Sherman Community Hostess House, Women's Committee Miami County Branch, Council of National Defense, Duryea War Relief, Fatherless Children of France, Inc., French Heroes Lafayette Memorial Fund, Friends' Reconstruction Unit, Italian War Relief Fund, Miami Co. Liberty Loan Committee, Miami Co. War Savings Stamp Committee, American Red Cross-Piqua Chapter and Miami Co. Chapter, Military Entertainment Council, Miami County Food Administration, Miami County Branch Council of National Defense, Permanent Blind Relief War Fund, Piqua Food Administration, Polish Victims' Relief Fund, Roumanian Relief Committee, Smith College War Service Board, Serbian Relief Committee of America, Serbian Aid Fund, Society for Protection Frontier Children, Salvation Army, and War Resources Committee.

Executive organization of Miami county war chest was as follows: Executive Board-- H.D. Hartley, president; Rev. J. E. Etter, vice- president.; Stanhope Boal, A. D. Hance, W. K. Leonard, Joe Welsh, Wm. C. Rogers, J. Harry Clark, Dr. R. M. Shannon, James R. Duncan, S. G. Frazier, H. B., Chaffin, D. G. Wenrick, Chas. E. Perkins, George Rehmert, Ross Knoop, A. G. Eidemiller, Frank E. Thompson, Sumner Senseman, H. J. Ritter, A. L. Harshberger, Rev. J. E. Etter, Cort M. Smith, T. F. Rataiczak, A. G. Stouder ; Board of trustees: H. M. Allen, Chairman; L. M. Flesh, Vice-chairman; Geo. M. Peffer, Frank P. Irvin, Edward L. Crane, H. K. Wood, Walter E. Bowyer; Office organization: Walter Bowyer, treasurer; Clyde E. Hottle, secretary; Campaign committee: Bond Houser, Chairman; Allen G. Rundle, H. D. Hartley, John P. Spiker, John M. Spencer, A. C. McClung, Edward L. Cooper. Publicity and Education: Ralph C. Syles, Chairman C. Fullerton, jr., Harry N. Conley, A. C. McClung, Geo. A. Flesh; Budget committee: H. D. Hartley, Chairman; John Spencer, Allen G. Rundle.

Woman's Committee, Council of National Defense

Of all the organizations created as helpful adjuncts to the Government in the prosecution of its part in the World War, probably no single organization contributed a service of such varied and far-reaching character as the Woman's Branch of the Council of National Defense. The far-reaching scope of this organization was certainly not anticipated at the outset. From a vague organization whose full mission had not been well defined, this National body of women in all the various activities which later developed, contributed a signal service, one that had not a little to do with the final achievenient of victory. In the countless avenues which claimed their attention, these loyal, patriotic and self sacrificing women rendered a service that has not as yet received its full recognition by the public at large.

No less efficacious was the work of the Miami County Division of the Ohio Branch of this organization. At its initial organization Mrs. Addison F. Broornhall, of Troy, was elected chairman. Mrs. Broomhall was a woman of broad experience in club and organization work and was especially well fitted for so important a task. The other executive officers selected at that time were Mrs. Sterret Faulkner and Mrs. John Spencer, both of Troy and both of whom were recognized throughout the entire community as splendid and capable executive associates of Mrs. Broomhall in this great work.

The work was divided into two general classes, Local Chairmen and Department Chairmen, the latter division being subdivided into a number of special committees. The Local Chairmen were as follows: Mrs. Edgar Todd, Piqua; Mrs. C. W. Cookson, Troy; Mrs. Eugena Wenzlau, Tipp City; Mrs. J. H. Eichelbarger, Fletcher; Mrs. F. M. Longnacker, Pleasant Hill; Mrs. J. L. Cramer, Covington; Miss Mary Knoop, Casstown; Mrs. George Brecount, Conover; Mrs. John Arnold, Bradford; Mrs. Will Eby, West Milton; Mrs. Sumner Senseman, Phoneton.

The Department Chairmen were divided into the following divisions: Child Welfare, Mrs. A. Acton Hall, Mrs. Meyer Louis, of Piqua,, and Mrs. J. B. Kendall, of Tipp City; Nursing: Mrs. William Leonard, of Piqua, and Mrs. R. A. Kerr, of Tipp City. Home and Foreign Relief: Mrs. Mary Sawyer, of Piqua, and Mrs. E. E. Edgar, of Troy. Food: Miss Eusebia James, of Piqua; Mrs. C. C. Hobart, of Troy; Mrs. A. L. Marshall, of Piqua. Red Cross: Mrs. W. H. Allison, of Piqua; Mrs. H. T. Gabriel, of Piqua, assistant Liberty Loans: Mrs. H. E. Scott, of Troy, Chairman; Mrs. Wm. Cook Rogers, Piqua; Mrs. Alvilda C. Ziegenfelder, Piqua; Mrs. Stella Boal, Piqua. Educational Propaganda: Mrs. I. M. Lindenberger, of Troy, and Mrs. George Dietrich, of Piqua. The "Fourteen Minute Women" were a feature of the Educational Propaganda in Piqua, Mrs. F. P. Brotherton, being chairman of the speakers' bureau. The speakers were: Mrs. Allen L. Marshall, Mrs. J. D. Miller, Miss Dessa Shaw, Mrs. Wm. Cook Rogers and Mrs. Brotherton. These helped materially by their talks on Red Cross Work, Food Conservation, Nursing, Women and the War, Relief Work, Americanization and Patriotic Education. Mrs. Meyer Louis arranged the dates and places for the speakers.

A model kitchen was established at Piqua under direction of Mrs. Stanley Connell, giving practical ways and means of conserving food.

Women's Auxiliary to Camp Sherman: Mrs. L. M. Flesh of Piqua. Committee on Draft Board Assistants: Mrs. Frank T. Harmon, chairman. It will be seen by the titles of the various committees that the work outlined was very comprehensive indeed, and the results proved to be as comprehensive as the outlined work indicated.

It will not be possible to enumerate the many things accomplished by these women in their subsequent campaign. To enumerate the many little sacrifices-the painstaking effort-the ramifications of all the departments of their work would require a volume of itself.

One of the great problems which confronted the Nation at this time was that of Food Conservation. This claimed the attention of our best publicists--lecturers and organizations. The Educational Committee of the local branch immediately took steps to spread the gospel of conservation. Posters were placed throughout the community and food cards were distributed to every home in the county. These pledge cards were a moral obligation to the signer to do everything within reason to help in the conservation of food.

Not only were these cards distributed, but helpful suggestions and scientific information were given to the housewives, to aid them in this campaign. A fair division of coal was another step undertaken by these women. Going from house to house in Troy they determined the proper quota of coal per home, and also provided for the distribution of coal. This canvass in Troy was to determine the approximate amount of coal needed in the county. Early summer buying of coal was advocated to relieve railroad congestion. The Child Welfare Division was another field of distinctive proportions. It is an old adage that war-time is the time for emaciated babies. It was the professed intention, and this intention was carried out, that there should be no emaciated babies in Miami county during the war. All children under six years of age were weighed and carefully examined as to their general physical condition. The work accomplished by this division was simply wonderful. If living conditions were inimical to the child's welfare-the living conditions were immediately improved. If a change of food was necessary, the food was changed. If a nursing baby was liable to suffer from an underfed, mother-additional food was provided. In short, nothing was left undone in this great work of Baby-Saving and the results, familiar to everyone, speak for themselves.

As Ohio was called on to fill a certain quota of student nurses, it became the duty of the Nursing division to supply Miami county's quota for this item. These nurses were to be especially equipped with the requisites that go to make good nurses. They were to be sent to training school, or if their previous experience justified, to be inducted into service. Despite the demand for nurses, which had existed for more than a year previously, and the comparative scarcity of available recruits for this service at that time, the Miami County Division supplied its full quota of twenty-five. The Division was called upon by the Governor of Ohio to furnish assistants to the Draft Board. A very efficient committee was formed with Mrs. Frank T. Harmon as chairman, and rendered notable services in this connection. These were only a few of the many contributions to the winning of the war, by the Miami County Division of this great organization. In the Red Cross, Liberty Loan and all other activities they were effective co-workers. When the final history of the great conflict is written, the Woman's Committee of The Council of National Defense will rank among the great forces that strengthened our Nation mightily, strengthened her in those little things which are collectively mighty.

The American Legion

The American Legion was formed for the purpose of perpetuating the interests of the American soldiers who served in the World war. Its functions are not political and it is not designed to wield arbitrary influence in American politics. It is the purpose of this order to perpetuate the great lessons learned in the world wide conflict, particularly the great American ideals which prompted our entry into the conflict. What the G. A. R. was, and is, to the Union soldiers of the Civil war, the American Legion is intended to be to the American soldiers of the great world conflict.

Miami county has three posts in the American Legion: The Clifford Thompson Post, No. 43, of Troy; The Paul Schnell Post, No. 184, of Piqua, and The A. B. Cole Post, No. 80, of Covington. The Clifford Thompson Post of Troy was named after one of the heroes who heroically sacrificed himself to save his comrades. The officers of the post are: Post Commander, Ira C. Helmick; Post Adjutant, Walter C. Miller; Post Finance Officer, Frank Rinehart; Executive Committee, Kenneth Little, Joseph Scott, John L. Babb.

The Paul Schnell Post, No. 184, of Piqua, was named in honor of Supply Sergeant Paul Schnell of Company C, who was killed in Flanders. The first officers to be elected in this post are: Post Commander, Kenneth Miller, Vice Commander, C. Worley Orr; Adjutant, Alfred P. Reek; Finance Officer, Gray Sigler: Historian, George A. Flesh; Chaplain, Dr. Francis W. Thomas; War Risk Officer, Will J. Prince; Employment Officer, J. E. Jones; Executive Committee, Victor Washburn, Chairman; Sharon Mote, William Hirt, Emmett Murray, Dr. M. R. Haley. Will J. Prince, of this Post, was elected as one of the first delegates from this district to attend a National convention--attending the National Convention of the Legion held at Minneapolis-1919. The A. B. Cole Post, No. 80, of Covington, was also named after a fallen hero, a member of Company A of Covington. The officers of this post are, Commander, L. J, Langston; Vice-Commander, W. C. Graber; Adjutant, Galen Neer; Finance Officer, Otto Fulker; Chaplain, H. D. Orr; Sergeant-at- Arms, Robert Langston; Executive Committee, William L. Marlin, W. O. Boggs and Hobart Fulker.

Red Cross, Troy Division

When the United States entered the Great War in 1917, the Miami County Chapter of the American Red Cross immediately began to adjust its program to meet the great and pressing need. Red Cross branches were reorganized under two main heads, the Miami county chapter including all of Miami county excepting Newberry, Washington, Spring Creek and Brown townships, which were embraced in the Piqua division. Headquarters for the Miami county or Troy division were established, in Troy where work was immediately started. In October, at the election of officers, Bond Houser was made chairman; Walter H. Coles, vice-chairman; Miss Edith Gruelich, secretary, and John K. DeFrees, treasurer. Membership during the subsequent campaigns resulted in an enrollment of 8,052 adults, exclusive of a very active junior department. In 1918 L. H. Shipman was made chairman; H. A. Pauley, vice-chairman; John K. DeFrees, treasurer, and Mrs. J. D. Miller, secretary. The women of the county rallied to the call for workers and under the following committeemen did an extraordinary amount of good work: Promotion and magazines, Mrs. A. F. Broomhall; county rural campaign, J. F. Fullerton, Jr.; publicity, Perce Bridge; county organizer, Rev. D. I. Ferguson. By September, 1917, the flying fingers of the untiring women who knitted morning, noon and night had completed 12,121 knitted articles, including sweaters, scarfs, mittens, helmets and socks, and excluding the vast quantities of hospital supplies, garments for Belgian, French and Armenian relief. The women who did splendid work in the supervision of many of the activities of this work in the manufacturing, packing and knitting departments, were Mrs. Harry Gabriel, Mrs. M. S. Wagner, Miss May Nixon, and Mrs. E. E. Edgar.

The rural organization in the townships embraced in the Troy division, in addition to the active workers in Troy were as follows: Monroe Township-E. L. Crane, R. R. Tippecanoe City; Mrs. L. E. Coppock, R. R. Tippecanoe City. Newton Township-W. Deeter, R. R. Bradford; Mrs. Frank Longenecker, Pleasant Hill. Staunton Township- Geo. Rehmerth, R. R. Troy; Mrs. M. E. Thomas, R. R. Troy. Union Township-Mr. and Mrs. Harry Ammon, Potsdam, Ohio. Bethel Township-Sumner Senseman, Tippecanoe City; R. H. Dearn, Phonetown. Concord Township-Harry Shaefer, R. R. Troy; Mrs. Harry Duncan, R. R. Troy. Elizabeth Township-Frank E. Thomas, R. R. New Carlisle; Mrs. Martin Relimerth, R. R. Troy. Lost Creek Township-Chas. Rogers, Casstown; Mrs. Virgil Hale, R. R. Troy.

Under the leadership of Miss Ellen Wheeler, the Junior Red Cross organized in the schools of the county made a remarkable record. As the result of a vigorous county-wide campaign, a membership of 3,658 school children was attained and general interest in this branch became very pronounced. Red Cross plays were given, sales of various kinds were held and money was raised in many ways to swell the treasury of the organization. The children also knitted and sewed, knitting 735 articles, the expenditures of the junior Chapter amounting to $565.37. Many, if not all the school teachers worked long and faithfully after school hours in bringing this branch to a success.

No sooner had the armistice been signed and the pressing need for such great quantities of supplies been lessened than a call, equally imperative but right at our doors, came to the Red Cross.

The epidemic of influenza which swept over the country with such fatal results exhausted the supply of medical and nursing aid and only the heroic efforts of volunteer workers prevented a still greater number of deaths. With the nursing staff of every hospital in the country greatly reduced by the call from overseas, and the number of physicians lessened by the same cause, it was impossible to provide adequate care for the thousands of suffering civilians. It became the mission of the Civilian Relief to provide as well as possible for the many sick people in this community and excellent work was accomplished.

Great quantities of soup were made and delivered daily to the homes of the sick. Volunteer nurses did good work in caring for them, until, as often occurred, they themselves succumbed to the disease. From October, 1918, to April, 1919, there were 2,698 cases reported, and the cost to the Red Cross chapter in caring for the sick and providing sick room supplies was $825.75. The following hospital supplies were made and distributed under the direction of the Red Cross: 6,909 hospital shirts, 529 pillows, 56 bed sox, 70 napkins, 190 handkerchiefs, 120 washcloths, 140 layettes, 144 comfort kits, 264 pinafores, 102 underdrawers, 100 shirts, 300 chemises and 100 convalescent robes.

The question of the returned soldier soon became the great problem confronting the Civilian Relief. It is the Government's agent for keeping in touch with and ministering to the families of soldiers and sailors who are in the army or navy or who have been discharged and are in need of temporary relief.

End Part 3
Memoirs Of The Miami Valley
Pages 524 - 543

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