MIAMI COUNTY was formed from Montgomery, January 16, 1807, and Staunton made the temporary seat of justice. The word Miami, in the Ottawa language, is said to signify mother. The name Miami was originally the designation of the tribe who anciently bore the name of "Tewightewee." This tribe were the original inhabitants of the Miami valley, and affirmed they were created in it. East of the Miami the surface is gently rolling, and a large proportion of it a rich alluvial soil; west of the Miami the surface is generally level, the soil a clay loam and better adapted to small grain and grass than corn. The county abounds in excellent limestone and has a large amount of water power. In agricultural resources this is one of the richest counties in the State.
Area about 400 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 137,922 in pasture, 7,159; woodland, 23,601; lying waste, 2,338; produced in wheat, 956,331 bushels; rye, 1,678; buckwheat, 87; oats, 454,112; barley, 27,349; corn, 1,520,000; broom-corn, 9,690 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 8,175 tons; clover hay, 7,806; flax, 833,800 lbs. fibre; potatoes, 47,593 bushels; tobacco, 463,120 lbs.; butter, 536,213 ; cheese, 13,400; sorghum, 4,731 gallons; maple syrup, 8,627; honey, 6,225 lbs.; eggs, 433,940 dozen ; grapes, 26,635 lbs.; sweet potatoes, 1,927 bushels ; apples, 1,395; peaches, 102; pears, 831; wool, 22,088 lbs.; milk cows owned, 6,033. Ohio mining statistics 1888 : Limestone, 8,635 tons burned for lime; 73,096 cubic feet of dimension stone ; 45,27 5 cubic yards of building stone; 5,007 cubic yards for piers or protection purposes; 27,582 square feet of flagging; 37,850 square feet of paving; 30,558 lineal feet of curbing; 8,077 cubic yards of ballast or macadam. School census, 1888, 12,038; teachers, 266, Miles of railroad track, 121.
TOWNSHIPS AND CENSUS 1840. 1880. Bethel, l,586 1,854 Brown, 1,230 1,863 Concord, 2,408 5,354 Elizabeth, 1,398 1,327 Lost Creek, 1,304 1,450 Monroe, 1,409 2,829 Newberry, 1,632 4,615 Newton, 1,242 2,829 Spring Creek, 1,501 1,682 Staunton, 1,231 1,292 Union, 2,221 3,859 Washington, 2,642 7,204 Population of Miami in 1820, 8,851; 1830, 12,807; 1840; 19,804; l860, 29,959; 1880, 36,158,
of whom 8,832 were born in Ohio; 1,882, Pennsylvania; 599, Virginia; 570, Indiana; 321, New York; 243,
Kentucky; 1,376, German Empire; 413, Ireland; 159, England and Wales; 93, France; 48, British America;
and 14, Scotland. Census, 1890, 39,754.
REMINISCENCES OF CLARKE'S EXPEDITION.
Prior to the settlement of Ohio, Gen. George Rogers Clarke led an expedition from Kentucky against the Indians in this region, an account of which follows from the reminiscences of Abraham Thomas, originally published in the Troy Times. Mr. Thomas, it is said, cut the first sapling on the site of Cincinnati:
In the year 1782, after corn planting, I again volunteered in an expedition under General Clarke with the object of destroying some Indian villages about Piqua, on the Great Miami river. On this occasion nearly 1,000 men marched out of Kentucky by the route of Licking river. We crossed the Ohio at the present site of Cincinnati where our last year's stockade bad been kept up, and a few people then resided in log cabins. We proceeded immediately onward through the woods without regard to our former trail, and crossed Mad River not far from the present site of Dayton; we kept up the east side of the Miami and crossed it about four miles below the Piqua Towns. Shortly after gaining the bottom on the west side of the river, a party of Indians on horseback with their squaws came out of a trace that led to some Indian villages near the present site of Granville. They were going on a frolic, or powwow, to be held at Piqua, and had with them a Mrs. McFall, who was some time before taken prisoner from Kentucky; the Indians escaped into the woods leaving their women, with Mrs. McFall, to the mercy of our company. We took those along with us to Piqua and Mrs.McFall returned to Kentucky. On arriving at Piqua we found that the Indians had fled from the villages, leaving most of their effects behind. During the following night I joined a party to break up an encampment of Indians said to be lying about what was called their French store. We soon caught a Frenchman, tied him on horseback for our guide and arrived at the place in the night. The Indians had taken alarm and cleared out; we, however, broke up and burned the Frenchman's store, which for a long time been a place of outfit for Indian marauders and returned to the main body early in the morning nag, many of our men well stocked with plunder. After burning and otherwise destroying everything about upper and lower Piqua towns we commenced our return march.
In this attack five Indians were killed during the night the expedition lay at Piqua; the Indians lurked around the camp, firing random shots from the hazel thickets without doing us an injury; but two men who were in search of their stray horses were fired upon and severely wounded ; one of those died shortly after and was buried at what is now called "Coe's Ford," where we recrossed the Miami on our return. The other, Capt. McCracken, lived until we reached the site of Cincinnati, where he was buried. On this expedition we had with us Capt. Barbee, afterwards Judge Barbee, one of my primitive neighbors in Miami county, Ohio, a most worthy and brave man, with whom I have hunted, marched and watched through many a long day, and finally removed with him to Ohio.
From the "Miami County Traditions," also published in the Troy Times, in 1839, we annex some reminiscences of the settlement of the county and its early settlers:
Among the first settlers who established themselves in Miami county was John Knoop. He removed from Cumberland county, Penn. in 1797. In the spring of that year be came down the Ohio to Cincinnati and cropped the first season on Zeigler's stone-house farm, four miles above Cincinnati, then belonging to John Smith. During the summer he made two excursions into the Indian country with surveying parties and at that time selected the land he now owns and occupies. The forest was then full of Indians, principally Shawnees, but there were small bands of Mingoes, Delawares, Miamis and Potawatomies, peacefully hunting through the country. Early the next spring, in 1798 Mr. Knoop removed to near the present site of Staunton village, and in connection with Benjamin Knoop, Henry Garard, Benjamin Hamlet and John Tildus, established there a station for the security of their families. Mrs. Knoop, now living, there planted the first apple tree introduced into Miami county. and one is now standing in the yard of their house raised from seed then planted that measures little short of nine feet around it.
Dutch Station. -- The inmates of a station in the county called the Dutch station, remained within it for two years, during which time they were occupied in clearing and building their respective farms. Here was born in 1798 Jacob Knoop, the son of John Knoop, the first civilized native of Miami county. At this time there were three young single men living at the mouth of Stony creek, and cropping on what was afterwards called Freemans Prairie. One of these was D. H. Morris, a present resident of Bethel township; at the same time there resided at Piqua, Samuel Hilliard, Job Garrard, Shadrach Hudson, Jonah Rollins, Daniel Cox, Thomas Rich and ---- Hunter; these last named had removed to Piqua in 1797, and Dutch station comprised all the inhabitants of Miami from 1797 to 1799. In the latter year John, afterwards Judge Garrad, Nathaniel and Abner Garrad and the year following, Uriah Blue, Joseph Coe and Abraham Hathaway, joined us with their families. From that time all parts of the county began to receive numerous immigrants. For many years the citizens lived together on footings of the most social and harmonious intercourse-we were all neighbors to each other in the Samaritan sense of the term - there were some speculators and property-hunters among us, to be sure, but not enough to disturb our tranquility and general congdence. For many miles around we knew who was sick, and what ailed them, for we took a humane interest in the welfare of all. Many times were we called from six to eight miles to assist at a rolling or raising, and cheerfully lent our assistance to the task. For our accommodation we sought the mill of Owen Davis, afterwards Smith's mill, on Beaver creek, a tributary of the Little Miami, some twenty-seven miles distant. Our track lay through the woods, and two days were consumed in the trip, when we usually took two horse loads. Owen was a kind man, considerate of his distant customers, and would set up all night to oblige them, and his conduct materially abridged our mill duties.
With the Indians we lived on peaceable terms; sometimes, however, panics would spread among the women, which disturbed us a little and occasionally we would have a horse or so stolen. But one man only was killed out of the settlement from 1797 to 1811. This person was one Boyier, who was shot by a straggling party of Indians, supposed through mistake. No one, however, liked to trade with the Indians, or have any thing to do with them, beyond the offices of charity.
Beauty of the Country - The country all around the settlement presented the most lovely appearance, the earth was like an ash heap, and nothing could exceed the luxuriance of primitive vegetation; indeed our cattle often died from excess of feeding, and it was somewhat difficult to rear them or that account. The white-weed or bee-harvest, as it is called, so profusely spread over our bottom and woodlands, was not then seen among us; the sweet annis, nettles, wild rye and pea vine, now so scarce, every where abounded they were almost the entire herbage of our bottoms. The two last gave subsistence to our cattle, and the first, with our nutritious roots, were eaten by our swine with the greatest avidity. In the spring and summer months a drove of hogs could be scented at a considerable distance from their flavor of the annis root. Our winters were as cold, but more steady than at present. Snow generally covered the ground, and drove our stock to the barnyard for three months, and this was all the trouble we had with them. Buffalo signs were frequently met with; but the animals had entirely disappeared before the first white inhabitant came into the country; but other game was abundant. As many as thirty deer have been counted at one time around the bayous and ponds near Staunton. The hunter had his full measure of sport when he chose to indulge in the chase; but ours was essentially an agricultural settlement. From the coon to the buckskin embraced our circulating medium. Our imported commodities were first purchased at Cincinnati, then at Dayton, and finally Peter Felix established an Indian merchandising store at Staunton, and this was our first attempt in that way of traffic. For many years we had no exports but skins; yet wheat was steady at fifty cents and corn at twenty- five cents per bushel, the latter, however, has since fallen as low as twelve and a half cents, and a dull market.
Milling. - For some time the most popular milling was at Patterson's, below Dayton, and with Owen Davis, on Beaver; but the first mill in Miami county is thought to have been erected by John Manning, on Piqua bend. Nearly the same time Henry Garrard erected on Spring creek a corn and saw mill, on land now included within the farm of Col. Winans. It is narrated by the colonel, and is a fact worthy of notice, that on the first establishment of these mills they would run ten months in a year, and sometimes longer, by heads. The creek would not, now turn one pair of stones two months in a year, and then only on the recurrence of freshets. It is thought this remark is applicable to all streams of the upper Miami valley, showing there is less spirits drainage e from the country since it has become cleared of its timber and consolidated by cultivation.
Troy in 1846 --. Troy, the county-seat, is a beautiful and flourishing village, in a highly cultivated and fertile country, upon the west bank of the Great Miami, seventy miles north of Cincinnati and sixty-eight west of Columbus. It was laid out about the year 1808, as the county-seat, which was first at Staunton, a mile east, and now containing but a few houses. Troy is regularly laid off into broad and straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, and contains about 550 dwellings. The view was taken in the principal street of the town, and shows, on the right, the court house and, town hall, between which, in the distance, appear the spires of the New School Presbyterian and Episcopal churches. It contains 2 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Wesleyan Methodist, 1 Episcopal and 1 Baptist church; a market, a branch of the State Bank, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 town and 1 Masonic hall, 1 academy, 3 flouring and 5 saw-mills, 1 foundry, 1 machine shop, 1 shingle and 1 plow factory and a large number of stores and mechanic shops. Its population in 1840 was 1,351; it has since more than doubled, and is constantly increasing. It is connected with Cincinnati, Urbana and Greenville by turnpikes.
The line of the Miami Canal, from Cincinnati, passes through the town from south to north., on it are six large and commodious warehouses, for receiving and forwarding produce and merchandise, and three more, still larger, are in progress of erection., and four smaller, for supplying boats with provisions and other necessaries. The business done during the current year, ending June 1, 1847, in thirty of the principal business houses, in the purchase of goods, produce and manufactures, amounts to $523,248, an the sales to $674,307. The articles bought and sold, are as follows: 174,000 bushels of wheat, 290,000 bushels of corn, 100,000 bushels of rye, barley and oats, 17,000 barrels of whisky, 17,000 barrels of flour, 1300 barrels pork, 5,000 hogs, 31,000 pounds butter 2,000 bushels clover-seed, 600 barrels fish, 3,000 barrels salt, 30,000 bushels flax-seed, 304,000 pounds bulk pork, 136,000 pounds lard, 1,440 thousand feet of sawed lumber, etc. The shipments to and from the place are about 20,000 tons. -Old Edition.
Abraham Thomas, from whom we have quoted in the "Miami County Traditions," published, was one of the first settlers; he came with his family in 1805, and died in 1843. He was a blacksmith and his shop a log-pen. He made his own charcoal. The panic during the war of 1812 extended to this then wilderness, and at the slightest alarm the women and children would flee to the forest for safety. The "County History" gives these items:
At the beginning of things hogs fattened in the woods and not five bushels of corn were needed to fatten a hundred bogs. Corn was raised only for food, and by hoeing and digging around the stumps. A man who would go to mill with two bushels of corn was considered a prosperous farmer. Potatoes were a luxury introduced a long time after the first settlement. Having no fences, bells were put on the stock. which, notwithstanding, wandered off and got lost. The sugar used was home-made, the coffee was rye, and the tea sassafras and sage. The first grain was cut with sickles, which were considered a wonderful invention.
Staunton was the first place of permanent settlement in the county, and the nucleus from which its civilization spread. It was the first plotted town. Among the earliest settlers of Staunton was Mr. Levi Martin. His wife, when a young girl, about the year 1788, then living not far from Red Stone Fort, on the Monongahela, was knocked down and scalped by the Indians and left for dead. The family name was Corbly, and hers Delia. They were on the way to church and shot at from a thicket, when Mr. Corbly and three children were killed outright. Two younger daughters were knocked down, scalped, and left-for dead, but were resuscitated. One of these was Mrs. Martin, who lived until 1836 and reared ten children. Her wounds extended over the crown of her head wide as the two hands. Her hair grew up to the scalped surface, which she trained to grow upwards, and served as a protection. At times she suffered severe headaches, which she attributed to the loss of her scalp.
Another noted old settler was Andrew Dye, Sr, who died in 1837 at the age of 87 years. having had eight sons and two daughters. At this time his posterity amounted to about five hundred, of whom three hundred and sixty were then living ranging down to the fifth generation.
Most of the pioneers wore buckskin pantaloons. One was Tom Rogers, a great hunter who lived in two sycamore trees in the woods. He had long gray whiskers, a skull cap and buckskin pantaloons.
The first survey of Troy was made by Andrew Wallace in 1807, with additions from time to time. On the 2nd of December of that year Robert Crawford was appointed town director, who gave bonds to the county commissioners to purchase the land for the seat of justice and lay it off into streets and lots. The original lands selected for the now beautiful town of Troy were then a dense forest, bought for three dollars an acre.
Troy, county-seat of Miami, is about sixty-five miles west of Columbus, about seventy-five miles north of Cincinnati, on the D.& M., I.B.& W. Railroads, and on the Miami river and Miami & Erie Canal. County officers, 1888: Auditor, Horatio Pearson; Clerk, John B. Fouts; Commissioners: John T. Knoop, Robert Martindale, David C. Statler; Coroner, Joseph W. Means; Infirmary Directors, David Arnold, William D. Widner, Thomas C. Bond; Probate Judge, William J. Clyde; Prosecuting Attorney, Samuel C. Jones; Recorder, E. J. Eby; Sheriff, A. M. Heywood; Surveyor, H. O. Evans; Treasurer, George H. Rundle. City officers, 1888: George S. Long, Mayor; John H. Conklin, Clerk; Noah Yount, Treasurer; George Irwin, Marshal; W. B. McKinney, Solicitor; H. O. Evans, Civil Engineer. Newspapers: Trojan Republican, Charles H. Goodrich, editor and publisher; Democrat, Democratic, J. P. Barron, editor and publisher; Miami Union Republican, C. C. Royce, editor; Sons of Veterans Corporals Guard, Charles W. Kellogg, editor and publisher. Churches: 1 Catholic, 2 Baptist, 3 Methodist, 1 German Lutheran, 1 English Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Christian. Banks: First National, H. W. Allen, president, D. W. Smith, cashier; Miami County, Heywood, Royce & Co., Noah Yount, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees--Troy Spring Wagon and Wheel Co., carriages, etc, 127 hands; the Troy Buggy Works, buggies, etc, 146; Kelley & Sons, windmills, etc, 8; John & William Youtsy, lumber, 5- State Reports 1888, Population 1880 3,803. School census, 1888, 1,218; C. L. Van Cleve, school superintendent. Census 1890, 4,590.
Troy has several fine three-story business blocks, and is a favorite place for trade for the large, rich agricultural country of which it is the center. Prior to the railroad era it was a noted grain market.
The new County court-house here is an evidence of the wealth and liberality of the people. It is one of the most magnificent structures of the kind to be found anywhere. The architect was J. W. Yost, Columbus, and contractor, T. B. Townsend, Zanesville. It stands in the center of a square, with bounding streets of 230 by 330 feet. The building itself is highly ornamented, and is 114 feet 2 inches square; its material is the beautiful Amherst sand-stone. To the eaves it is 60 feet in height, and to the top of the dome 160 ft. Its entire cost with its furniture, including the heating and lighting appointments, amounted to about $400,000. The first building used for courts was at Stanton, on the east side of the Miami. The first courthouse was of brick, and stood in the center of the public square; the second is shown in our old view.
Piqua in 1846. --Piqua is another beautiful and thriving town, eight miles above Troy, and also on the river and canal. It was laid out in 1809 by Messrs. Brandon and Manning, under the name of Washington, which it bore for many years. The town plot contains an area of more than a mile square, laid out in uniform blocks, with broad and regular streets. On the north and east, and opposite the town, are the villages of Rossville and Huntersville, connected with it by bridges across the Miami.
It contains one New and one Old School Presbyterian, one Methodist Episcopal, one Methodist Wesleyan, one Episcopal, one Baptist, one Associate Reformed, one Lutheran, one Catholic and one Disciples church; one high school, a town hall, and a branch of the State bank. The manufacturing facilities in it and vicinity are extensive. The Miami furnishes power for one wool-carding and pulling factory, three saw-mills, one grist-mill adjacent to the town, and a saw and gristmill, with an oil-mill, below the town. The water of the canal propels a sawmill, a clothing and pulling factory, with a grist-mill. A steam saw-mill, a steam gristmill and tannery, with two steam iron-turning and machine establishments, constitute, with the rest, the amount of steam and hydraulic power used. With these are over 100 mechanical and manufacturing establishments in the town, among which are twenty- five cooper shops-that business being very extensively carried on. There are also fifteen grocery and variety stores, twelve dry- goods, three leather, one book and three hardware stores; a printing office, four forwarding and three pork houses: and the exports and imports, by the canal, are very heavy. South of the town are seven valuable quarries of blue limestone, at which are employed a large number of hands, and adjacent to the town is a large boat yard.
In the town are 600 dwellings, many of which are of brick and have fine gardens attached. Along the canal have lately been erected a number of three story brick buildings for business purposes, and the numbers of business houses is ninety-eight. During the year 1846 eighty buildings were erected, and the value of the real estate at that time was $476,000.
The population of Piqua in 1830 was less than 500; in 1840, 1,480; and in 1847, 3,100.
The Miami river curves beautifully around the town, leaving between it and the village a broad and level plateau, while the opposite bank rises abruptly into a hill, called "Cedar Bluff," affording fine walks and a commanding view of the surrounding country. In its vicinity are some ancient works. From near its base, on the east bank of the river, the view was taken. The church spires shown. commencing on the right, are, respectively the Episcopal, Catholic, New School Presbyterian, Wesleyan Methodist t, Old School Presbyterian and Baptist. The town hall is seen on the left. -Old Edition.
The old view of Piqua was taken a few rods only below the present bridge, both occupying the same site. In 1846, when a part of John Randolphs Negroes were driven from Mercer county, they camped here at this place in tents. Three years later John Robinson's elephant fell through the old bridge.
From the Miami county traditions we annex some facts respecting the history of Piqua.
JONATHAN ROLLINS was among the first white in habitants of Miami county. In connection with nine others he contracted with Judge Symmes, for a certain compensation in lots and land, to become a pioneer in laying out a proposed town in the Indian country, at the lower Piqua village, where is situated the pleasant and flourishing town under that name. The party left Ludlow station, on mill creek, in the spring. of 1797, and proceeded without difficulty to the proposed site. They there erected cabins and enclosed grounds for fields and gardens. But the judge failing in some of his calculations was unable to fulfill his part of the contract, and the other parties to it gradually withdrew from the association, and squatted on the land as best pleased themselves. It was some years after this when land could regularly entered in the public offices; surveying parties had been running out the county, but time was required to organize the newly introduced section system, which has since proved so highly beneficial to the Western States, and so fatal to professional cupidity.
Indian Grief -- Some of the hardy adventurers settled in and about Piqua, where they have left many worthy descendents. Mr. Rollins final took up land Spring Creek, where he laid out the farm he now (1839) occupies. While this party resided at Piqua, and for years after the Indians were constant visitors and sojourners among them. This place appears to have been, to that unfortunate race, a most favorite residence, around which their attachments and regrets lingered to the last. They would come here to visit the graves of their kindred and weep over the sod that entombed the bones of their fathers. They would sit in melancholy groups, surveying the surrounding objects of their earliest attachments and childhood sports--the winding river which witnessed their first feeble essays with the gig and the paddle--the trees where first they triumphed with their tiny bow in their boastful craft of the hunter--the coppice of their nut gatherings--the lawns of their boyhood sports, and haunts of their early loves--would call forth bitter sighs and reproaches on that civilization which, in its rudest features, was uprooting them from their happy homes.
Pioneer Assertions-- The Indians at Piqua soon found, in the few whites among them, stern and inflexible masters rather than associates and equals. Upon the slightest provocation the discipline of the fist and club, so humbling to the spirits of an Indian, was freely used upon them. One day an exceedingly large Indian had been made drunk, and for some past offence took it in his head to kill one of his wives. some past offence took it in his head to kill one of his wife's. He was following her with a knife and tomahawk around their cabin, with a posse of clamorous squaws and papooses at his heels, who were striving to check his violence. They bad succeeded in wresting from him his arms, and he was standing against the cabin, when several of the white men, attracted by the outcry, approached the group. One of them, small in stature but big in resolution, made through the Indian crowd to the offender, struck him in the face and felled him to the ground, while the surrounding Indians looked on in fixed amazement.
When the country had developed somewhat flatboats were constructed at Piqua on the river bank. They were about seventy feet long and twelve wide. They were loaded with flour, bacon, corn on the cob, cherry lumber, furniture and other products and taken down the river, sometimes to New Orleans. From thence the boatmen often walked all the way home again , passing through what was then called the Indian Nations, Choctaws and Chickasaws.
Navigating the Miami was risky, especially in passing over mill- dams and fol1owing the channel through the "Ninety-nine-Islands" a few miles below Troy. It required the utmost skill and quickness to guide the unwieldy craft through the swift, crooked turns.
Piqua is eight miles north of Troy, on the Miami river and the Miami & Erie Canal, at the crossing of the P.C.& St. L. and D.& M. Railroads. City officers, 1888: G. A. Brooks, Mayor; J. H. Hatch, Clerk; Clarence Langdon, Treasurer; Walter D. Jones, Solicitor; W. J. Jackson, Engineer; Jaines Livingston, Marshal. Newspapers: C W, Republican, J. W. Morris, editor and publisher; Dispatch, Republican, D. M. Fleming, editor; Evening Democrat, Democratic, J. Boni Hemsteger, editor and publisher; Der Correspondent, German, Democratic, J. Boni Hemsteger, editor and publisher; Leader, Democratic, Jerome C.Smiley & Co., editors and publishers; Miami Helmet, Republican, I. S.Morris, editor and publisher; Pythian News Knights of Pythias, Harry S.Frye, editor and publisher. Churches: Methodist, 3; Presbyterian, 2; Baptist, 3; Lutheran, 1; Episcopal, 1; Catholic, 2; German Methodist, 1. Banks: Citizens' National, W. P.Orr, president, Henry Flash, cashier; Piqua National, John M. Scott, president, Clarence Langdon, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees -- The Piqua Straw Board Co., paper and straw board, 62 hands; Bowdle Bros., machinery and castings, 13; I.J.Whitlack, builders woodwork, 25; C.A.& C.L.Wood, builders' woodwork, 30; the Fritsche Bros., furniture, 10; the Wood Linseed Oil Co., linseed oil, etc., 8; the Piqua Manufacturing Co., mattresses, etc., 35; L.W.Fillebrown, machinery, 5; the Piqua Handle Co., agricultural implements, 43 .; the Piqua, Straw Board Co., paper, 25 - the Piqua Oat-meal Co., corn-meal, 10; Snyder & Son carriage shafts, etc. 111 C.F.Rankin & Co., handlers of malt, etc., 15; Leonard Linseed Oil Co., linseed oil, etc., 20 ; W.P.Orr Linseed Oil Co., linseed oil, etc., 22; J. L. Schneyer, lagerbeer, 4; Mrs.L.E.Nicewanner, flour, etc., 5, the Piqua Hosiery Co., hosiery, 76; the F.Gray Co., woollen blankets, etc., 62; L.C.& W.L.Cron & Co., furniture, 165; Cron, Kills & Co., furniture, 178.- Ohio State Reports, 1888.
Tbe Bentwood Works are tube largest of the kind in the Union. Over a million bushels of flaxseed are annually crushed, making it the largest linseed oil center, and, excepting Circleville, no other place equals or surpasses it in the production of straw board. On the Miami are extensive and valuable limestone quarries.
Population, 1880, 6,031. School census, 1888, 2,717; C.W. Bennett, school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $968,500. Value of annual product, $1,626,000. Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887. Census, 1890, 9,090.
The manufacturing prosperity of the city is largely due to its excellent system of water-works. The canal is over six miles in length, and contains within its prism and reservoirs therewith connected at least 150 acres of water line, at an elevation of thirty-eight feet over the city, and three falls, aggregating fifty- two feet six inches, for hydraulic power.
A recent acquisition of Piqua is in a beautiful library building. It was the gift of Mr. Schmidlapp, a prosperous merchant of Cincinnati, who wished the citizens of this his native town to remember him by what would prove of lasting benefit.
The following historical matter respecting this region is taken from our first edition.
"The word Piqua is the name of one of the Shawanese tribes, and signifies, `a man formed out of the ashes' The tradition is, that the whole Sbawanese tribe, a long time ago, were assembled at their annual feast and thanksgiving. They were all seated around a large fire, which, having burned down, a great puffing was observed in the ashes, when, behold! a full-formed man came up out of the coals and ashes; and this was the first man of the Piqua tribe. After the peace of 1763, the Miamis having removed from the Big Miami river, a body of Shawanese established themselves at Lower and Upper Piqua, which became their great headquarters in Ohio. Here they remained until driven off by the Kentuckians, when they crossed over to St. Mary's and to Wapakoneta.
"The Upper Piqua is said to have contained, at one period, near 4,000 Shawanese. The Sbawanese were formerly a numerous people, and very warlike. We can trace their history to the time of their residence on the tide-waters of Florida, and, as well as the Delawares, they aver that they originally came from west of the Mississippi. Black Hoof, who died at Wapaghkonetta, at the advanced age of 105 years, told me (Col.John Johnston) that he remembered, when a boy, bathing in the salt waters of Florida; that his people firmly believed white or civilized people had been in the country before them-having found, in many instances, the marks of iron tools, axes, upon trees and stumps, over which the sand had blown. Shawanese means the south or people from the south.
Upper Piqua, three miles north of Piqua, on the canal and Miami river, is a locality of much historic interest. It is at present (1846) the residence of Col.John Johnston - shown in the view - and was once a favorite dwelling-place of the Piqua tribe of the Shawanese. Col. Johnston, now at an advanced age, has for the greater part of his life resided at the West as an agent of the United States Government over the Indians. His mild and parental care of their interests gave him great influence over them, winning their strongest affections and causing them to regard him in the light of a father. To him we are indebted for many valuable facts scattered through this volume, as well as those which follow respecting this place.
Battle at Piqua -- In the French war, which ended with the peace of 1763, a bloody battle was fought on the present farm of Col.Johnston at Upper Piqua. At that time the Miamis had their towns here, which are marked on ancient maps, "Towigbtewee towns." The Miamis, Wyandots, Ottawas and other Northern tribes adhered to the French, made a stand here and fortified the Canadian traders and French assisting. The Delawares, Shawanese, Munseys, part of the Senecas residing in Pennsylvania, Cherokees, Catawbas, etc., adhering to the English interest with the English traders, attacked the French and Indians. The siege continued for more than a week; the fort stood out and could not be taken. Many were slain, the assailants suffering most severely. The besieged lost a number, and all their exposed property was burnt and destroyed. The Shawanese chief, Blackhoof, one of the besiegers, informed Col. Johnston that the ground around was strewn with bullets, so that basketfuls could have been gathered.
Soon after this contest the Miamis and their allies left this part of the country and retired to the Miami of the Lake, at and near Fort Wayne, and never returned. The Shawanese took their place and gave names to towns in this vicinity. Col.Johnston's place and the now large and flourishing town of Piqua was called Chillicothe, after the tribe of that name the site of his farm after the Piqua tribe."
Fort Piqua erected prior to the settlement of the country, stood at Upper Piqua on the west bank of the river, near where the figure is seen in the distance on the right of the engraving. It was designed as a place of deposit for stores for the army of Wayne. The portage from here to Fort Loramie, fourteen miles, thence to St.Marys, twelve miles, was all the land carriage from the Ohio to Lake Erie. Loaded boats frequently ascended to Fort Loramie, the loading taken out and hauled to St.Mary's, the boats also moved across on wheels, again launched for Fort Wayne, Defiance and the lake. Sometimes, in very high water, loaded boats from. the Ohio approached within six miles of St. Mary's. Before the settlement of the country a large proportion of the army supplies were conveyed up this river. When mill dams were erected the navigation was destroyed and boating ceased.
A Massacre.---In 1794 Capt.J.N.Vischer, the last commandant of Fort Piqua, was stationed here. During that year two freighted boats guarded by an officer and twenty-three men were attacked by the Indians near the fort and the men all massacred. Capt.Vischer heard the firing, but from the weakness of his command could render no assistance. The plan of the Indians doubtless was to make the attack in hearing of the fort and thereby induce them to sally out in aid of their countrymen, defeat all and take the fort. The commander was a discreet officer and, aware of the subtleness of the enemy, had the firmness to save the fort.
The family of Col. Johnston settled at Upper Piqua in 1811, the previous eleven years having been spent at Fort Wayne. Years after the destruction of the boats and party on the river, fragments of muskets, bayonets and other remains of that disaster were found at low water imbedded in the sand. The track of the pickets, the form of the river bastion, the foundation of chimneys in the block- houses still mark the site of Fort Piqua. The plow has leveled the graves of the brave men-for many sleep here who fell in the service. At this place, Fort Loramie, St.Mary's and Fort Wayne, large numbers of the regulars and militia volunteers were buried in the wars of Wayne, as well as in the last war.
Friendly Indians.-In the late war the far greater number of Indians who remained friendly and claimed and received protection from the United States were placed under the care of Col.Johnston at Piqua. These were the Shawanese, Delawares, Wyandots in part, Ottawas in part, part of the Senecas, all the Munseys and Mohicans; a small number remained at Zanesfield, and some at upper Sandusky, under Maj.B.F.Stickney, now (1846) of Toledo. The number here amounted, at one period, to six thousand, and were doubtless the best protection to the frontier. With a view of detaching the Indians here from American interest and taking them off to the enemy, and knowing that so long as Col.Johnston lived this could not be accomplished, several plots were contrived to assassinate him. His life was in the utmost danger. He arose many mornings with but little hope of living until night, and the friendly chiefs often warned him of his danger, but he was planted at the post; duty, honor and the safety of the frontier forbade his abandoning it. His faithful wife stayed by him; the rest of the family, papers and valuable effects were removed to a place of greater security.
Escape from Assassins.--On one occasion his escape seemed miraculous. Near the house, at the road side, by which he daily several times passed in visiting the Indian camp was a cluster of wild plum bushes. No one would have suspected hostile Indians to secrete themselves there; yet, there the intended assassins waited to murder him, which they must have soon accomplished had they not been discovered by some Delaware women, who gave the alarm. The Indians three in number fled; a party pursued, but lost the trail. It afterwards appeared that the went up the river some distance, crossed to the east side, and passing down nearly opposite his residence, determined in being foiled of their chief prize not to return empty-banded. They killed Mr. Dilbone and his wife, who were in a field pulling flax; their children, who were with them, escaped by secreting themselves in the weeds. From thence, the Indians went lower down, three miles, to Loss Creek, where they killed David Garrard, who was at work a short distance from his house. The leader of the party, Pash-e-towa, was noted for his cold-blooded cruelty, and a short time previous was the chief actor in destroying upwards of twenty persons, mostly women and children at a place called Pigeon Roost, Indiana. He was killed after the war by one of his own people, in satisfaction for the numerous cruelties he bad committed on unoffending persons.
Management of Indians--In the war of 1812 nothing was more embarrassing to the public agents than the management of the Indians on the frontier. President Madison, from a noble principle, which does his memory high honor, positively refused to employ them in the war, and this was a cause of all the losses in the country adjacent to the upper lakes. Having their families in possession, the agents could have placed implicit confidence in the fidelity of the warriors. As it was, they had to manage them as they best could. Col. Johnston frequently furnished them with white flags with suitable mottoes, to enable them to pass outposts and scouts in safety. On one occasion the militia basely fired on one of these parties bearing a flag hoisted in full view. They killed two Indians, wounded a third, took the survivors prisoners, and after robbing them of all the possessed conveyed them to the garrison at Greenville, to which post the party belonged.
On reflection, they were convinced they had committed an unjustifiable act and became alarmed for the consequences. They brought the prisoners to Upper Piqua and delivered them to Col. Johnston. He took them, wishing to do the best in his power for the Indians, and on deliberation decided to conduct them back to Greenville and restore them, with their property, to their people.
Hazardous Errand-- Application was made by Col.Johnston to the officer commanding at Piqua, for a guard on the journey. These were Ohio militia, of whom not a man or officer dared to go. He then told the commander if he would accompany him he would go at all hazards, the distance being twenty-five miles, the road entirely uninhabited and known to be infested with Indians, who had recently killed two girls near Greenville. But he alike refused. All his appeals to the pride and patriotism of officers and men proving unavailing be decided to go alone, it being a case that required the promptest action to event evil impressions spreading among the Indians. He got his horse ready, bade farewell to his wife, scarcely ever expecting to see her again, and reached Greenville in safety; procured nearly all the articles taken from the Indians and delivered them back, made them a speech, dismissed them, and then springing on his horse started back alone, and reached his house in safety, to the surprise of all, particularly the militia, who, dastardly fellows, scarce expected to see him alive, and made many apologies for their cowardice.
Indian Faithfulness.--During the war Col. Johnston had many proofs of the fidelity of some of the friendly Indians. After the surrender of Detroit the frontier of Ohio was thrown into the greatest terror and confusion. A large body of Indians still resided within its limits accessible to the British. In the garrison of Fort Wayne, which was threatened, were many women and children, who, in case of attack, would have been detrimental to its defense, and it therefore became necessary to have them speedily removed. Col.Johnston assembled the Shawanese chiefs, and stating the case requested volunteers to bring the women and children at Fort Wayne to Piqua. Logan immediately rose and offered his services and soon started with a party of mounted Indians, all volunteers. They reached the post, received their interesting and helpless charge and safely brought them to the settlements, through a country infested with marauding bands of hostile savages. The women spoke with in the highest delicacy of their faithful conductors.
On my arrival at Piqua I had the gratification of being taken in charge of by the oldest born resident, and to him I am under "ever so many " obligations. This was Major Stephen Johnston, so named from his father, a brother of Col. John Johnston. He is by profession a lawyer, and although I met many of his profession in this tour, he is the only one that I know of whose father was killed and scalped by the Indians and his scalp sold to the British. This happened near Fort Wayne, where be was a factory agent. A month later, September 29, 1812, the Major was born. This was in a farmhouse just south of Piqua.
The stock is historic and heroic. The Major's mother's maiden name was Mary Caldwell and she was born in Bryant's Station, a fort near Lexington, Ky., in 1788, in the pristine days of Boone, Kenton and Simon Girty and his red-skinned confreres, the hair lifting war- whoops. When the Major was thirteen years of age he put on a knapsack, trudged through to Urbana, learned to make saddles, and then for fourteen years worked as a journeyman saddler in Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Pennsylvania. In the meanwhile he studied as be stitched until in 1850, when thirty-eight years old, he launched as a lawyer with six children as he says " tugging at his coat tail." Prior to this he had been County Sheriff and in the Ohio Legislature; since been an officer in the Union army, in the Legislature, President of the Board of Trustees of the Ohio State University, Greenback candidate for Governor, etc., everywhere a leading spirit, and being such took me in his cheery charge.
Piqua's Social Exchange.-- After dusk of a fine April day he introduced me to the Social Exchange of Piqua, located on the pavement in front of the tobacco and cigar store of Mr. Charles T. Wiltheiss. There I found a knot of antediluvians--old gentlemen of the town lolling in chairs smoking and chatting over the affairs of the universe, Jupiter and his moons inclusive, which they often do there, amid the chirpings of the crickets and the amiable disputes of the katydids. Taking a chair and a cigar with them they answered my questions. One happened to be: "Have you any curious trees about here ?" "Oh, yes! something very remarkable. About two miles north between the river and canal, which are but a few rods apart, an elm and a sycamore start out from the ground together, go up with embracing bodies and intermingling branches." The next day I walked thither with Mr. Wiltheiss, and found it such a great curiosity that I had it photographed for the engraving that is given and name it the " Wedded Trees of the Great Miami."
Ancient Relics.--Piqua is historically and pictorially interesting. The river winds around the town broad and mostly shallow, with two long old style covered bridges half a mile apart stretched across to help out the scene, both being in one view. Only a few miles above was the earliest point of English Indian trade in Ohio. The region was a favorite place with the Indians and the mound builders, the remains of whose works are extremely numerous around and especially above the town in the river valley. Mr.Wiltheiss has for thirty years been in the habit of opening mounds, making explorations. He has in his cigar store a fine cabinet of relics, and has had, valuable contributions to various archaeological museums. He told me that he was unlettered. But I found his hobby had educated him, added interest to his life and made him an interesting man. He had been a close observer of Nature, and this is all in all. Nature is God's College for Humanity, where old Sol sits in the Presidential chair and lights up things. No one that closely observes and carefully reflects from his facts can be called ignorant.
A Sad Incident.--It was on Saturday morning, April 17th, that Mr. Wiltheiss and myself turned our backs on the old upper covered bridge for a walk to the wedded trees, the canal on our left and the Big Miami on our right. We walked on the towing the path . My companion talked all the way, making the walk highly enjoyable. We give some details.
We had gone but a few hundred yards when he said: " The river at this spot is very dangerous; many boys have been drowned here. On the 12th of July, 1858, a Mr.Jones, who was going to his work in a threshing machine, saw two boys struggling for their lives in the water, whereupon be rushed to their rescue. He waded across the canal, ran down the river bank into the water and saved them. Both are now living, men about 40 years of age Dr. M'Donald and E.B. Butterfield. But Jones lost his own life, sank through exhaustion and perished, leaving a widow, and three children fatherless.
Island Formation.--The tremendous freshets late in the Miami, consequent upon forest destruction, make great changes. We soon passed an island made by a freshet only two years before. It was like a flat iron in shape point down stream, and at its upper part, where it was separated by a rivulet from other land, it was about 200 feet across. Its total length was some 600 feet. It was some two feet high, and in places overgrown with young sycamore and willow bushes some five or six feet high. These, my companion said, had sprung up in the intervening two years: the willows from broken twigs and the sycamores from the seed balls, commonly called button balls, that had floated down and lodged in the rich alluvium.
Thorns.--We passed some locust bushes, with thorns full five inches in length, whereupon he said: "This is what we call the sweet locust, because it bears a bean sweet to the taste, which children often eat. Some suppose this to be the identical species grown In Palestine which John the Baptist, when crying in the wilderness ate when he partook of "locusts and wild honey;" those thorns from which Christ wore at his crucifixion. "How this may be I can't say, but doubtless the thorns were like those sometimes used in lieu of pins by the pioneer women. Chief-Justice Marshall somewhere speaks of his mother and the old time Virginia women using such. This was probably as far back as the time when murderers were hung on chains by the road side in Virginia a ghastly sight for travelers in that then wilderness region. Elkanah Watson, who traveled through Virginia in the revolutionary war speaks of seeing such.
Presently Mr. Wiltheiis pointed out a field where were the relics of a large circular mound. It had been an Indian burial place, and proved for him a rich spot for relics.
Sights, Song and Sounds.--Pursuing our walk along the beautiful river, I found my self enveloped in the delights of Nature. It was the breeding season among the birds, and they gave us their sweetest love notes. Among the cries were those of a pair of red birds, the cardinal. from the opposite side of the Miami. We stopped and listened. The female is red on the breast, and the back and wings gray. The male is everywhere red, excepting a black ring around the bill, which is also red. It has a red top knot which he raises while singing, and lays down when silent. "Wait," said Wiltheiss, " I will call them over." Starting a peculiar whistle in a twinkling over they came in all their feathery beauty, and flying around followed us with their song.
The Indians of the Pacific slope to this day while hunting call various animals, even squirrels, within the range of their rifles. How they do it is a secret, for if a white man is along they will hide their mouths with their hands. This may be called the Art of the Woods to be a lost art with the extinction of the Indians.
Moving on we were soon saluted by the cackling of hens, the crowing of roosters, the bellowing of a cow, and the hammering of a man driving nails in a fence from an old brown farm cottage near by, and then the voices of two men paddling up stream in a skiff with fishing rods along, going for black bass, it being just the biting season . Vegetable felicity finally arrested us:: we had reached the wedded trees.
The wedded trees stand on the line of the towing path of the canal, about six rods west of the river, the flat space between being overgrown with wild hemp and thistles, with paw-paws abounding in the vicinity. The elm is a large, vigorous tree, but far smaller than the sycamore, which embraces and conceals a larger part of its body and thus they go up together, perhaps 15 or 20 feet, when they branch, and with interlocking branches. Their height is about 70 feet, and 6 feet from the ground, by our measurement, the girth was 24 feet. Observing a slit on the river side of the sycamore, I saw it was hollow within. I doubted if any human being had ever been inside. I did not feel it safe to make the venture. It might be a harbor for some ugly reptile. A sense of duty urged me to the trial. I was dedicated to Ohio and must shrink at nothing, and so in I went. The slit was too narrow for me to get, in without the aid of my companion, and so I was put in sidewise, much as one would put a board through an upright slat fence. My feet sank a foot or so lower than the ground outside. I then stood upright, and the top of the slit came up to about my waist; but little light came in through it. Above me the hole went up indefinitely. The walls were covered with pendent decaying wood. The place was gloomy and musty. I could see but little, and was glad to quickly get out, feeling as though I could not commend it for any permanent habitation.
Aged trees--like the sycamore here, are apt to be hollow within. This seems to make no difference with their duration of life. The famous Charter Oak lived about 150 years after the secretion of the charter within, and in its last years it held all the members of two fire companies at once. When it was blown down in a gale about 1854, the bells of Hartford tolled and a military hand played a dirge over its remains.
The sustaining life of trees appears to be within a few inches of their bark. I once saw an aged oak that had been destroyed by fire, and all that was left of it was less than half its outer shell, and this had within a surface of charcoal; yet the shell had sufficient vim to carry up the sap for its few remaining branches that had put forth leaves. That as on its last legs. I visited the spot later and it was gone. The old sycamore I was slipped into may yet live a century. The Charter Oak was perhaps 1,000 of age.
Col. John Johnston --From near the wedded trees I had a view of Upper Piqua, shown in our sketch of 1846. He was the largest contributor to my original edition. He was of Scotch-Irish and Huguenot stock, was born in Ballyshannon, Ireland, in 1775, and died in Washington D.C., in 1861. When a lad he came to Pennsylvania with his father's family; at 17 years was in the Quartermaster's Department in Wayne's army was later Clerk in the War Department; participated as an officer at the funeral service of Washington; was Indian Agent, appointed by Madison, at Upper Piqua for 30 years having control of the affairs of 10,000 Indians, comprising many tribes, and giving great satisfaction; negotiated for a treaty of cessation with the Wyandots, the last of the native tribes of Ohio. In 1844, as a delegate to the Whig convention in Baltimore, he rode on horseback the whole way from Piqua, and made speeches for Henry Clay along the route. He established with his wife the first Sunday school in Miami, was one of the founders of Kenyon College; a trustee of Miami; a member of Visiting Board at West Point; President of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, etc. etc. His "Account of the Indian Tribes of Ohio" is in the 5th Volume of the "Collections of the American Society Antiquarian. "Three of his sons were valued officers: one, Stephen, was in the navy, another, A.R. was killed in the Mexican war, and a third, James A., was killed in the civil war.
I remember as of yesterday my first interview with Col. Johnston at Upper Piqua. He was a tall, dignified man, and of the blonde type, then 71 years of age. He was at the time plainly clad, but impressive, seeming as one born to command. It was a warm summer's day, and he took me to his well and gave me a drink of pure cold water, the quality of which he praised with the air of a prince. No man had the power and influence with tube western Indians that he possessed, and it arose from his weight of character and his high sense of justice. After leaving Upper Piqua he resided for years with his daughter, Mrs. John D. Jones, at Cincinnati. He was indeed a sterling man every way, and Ohio should never forget him.
TIPPECANOE is 6 miles south of Troy, on the Miami & Erie Canal and D.& R. City officers, 1888: Ellis H. Kerr, Mayor; E.A.Jackson, Clerk; John K. Herr, Treasurer; Thos. Hartley, Marshal. Newspaper: Herald. Republican; Harry Horton, editor and publisher. Churches: 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist Lutheran and one other. Bank: Tippecanoe National, Samuel Sullivan, president, A.W.Miles, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees.-J.L.Norris, Excelsior, 5; Trupp, Weakley & Co., builders' wood 25; Ford & Co., wheels, 51; Dietrich Milling Co., flour, etc., 5; The Tipp Paper Co., straw boards, 34. --State Report,8, 1887.
Population, 1880,1,401. School census, 1888, 444; J. T. Bartmess, school superintendent. Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $75,000. Value of annual product, $75,000.-Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.
COVINGTON is 10 miles northwest of Troy, at the crossing of the P.C.& St. L. and D.& T. Railroads. City officers, 1888: J. H. Marlin, Mayor; W. H. B. Routson, Clerk; A. M. Ruhl, Treasurer; Wm. Gavin, Marshal. Newspapers: Enterprise, Independent, H. L. Pearson, editor and publisher; Gazette, Independent, R.& W.F. Cantwell, editors and publishers; Vindicator, Baptist, Jos. I. Cover, editor and publisher. Churches: 1 Presbyterian, 1 Christian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Methodist. Bank: Stillwater Valley, J. R. Shuman, president.
A. C. Cable, cashier. Population, 1880, 1,458. School census, 1888, 504. R. F. Bennett, school superintendent.
CASSTOWN is 4 miles northeast of Troy. It has 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist and 1 Lutheran church. Population, 1880, 331. School census, 1888, 121.
BRADFORD is 13 miles northwest of Troy, on the I.& C. Div. of the P.C.& St L. R.R. It is part in Darke and part in Miami counties. City officers, 1888: Enos Yount, Mayor; John S. Moore, Clerk; David Arnold, Treasurer; Reuben Enochs, Marshal. Newspaper: Sentinel, Independent, A. F. Little, editor and publisher. Churches: 1 Catholic, 1 Cumberland Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 German Baptist, 1 Baptist, 1 German Reformed. Manufactures: Railroad repair shops, lumber, tile and furniture. Population, 1880, 1,373. School census, 1888, 281. Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $75,000. Value of annual product, $75,000.-Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.
WEST MILTON is 8 mile southwest of Troy, on the D. Ft. W. & C. R. R. Newspaper: Buckeye, Republican, H. J. Pearson, editor and publisher. Bank: West Milton, Robert W. Douglas, president, D. F. Douglas, cashier. Population, 1880, 688. School census, 1888, 301, W. W. Evans, school superintendent.
FLETCHER is 10 miles northeast of Troy, on the P.C.& St. L. R.R. Population, 1880, 384. School census, 1888, 166.
LENA is 12 miles northeast of Troy, on the P.C.& St. L. R.R. School census. 1888, 120.
PLEASANT HILL is 8 miles west of Troy, on the D. Ft. W. & C. R.R. Population, 1880, 461. School census, 1888, 209.
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